After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Work-Study 2. Area of Work-Study 3. Objective 4. Procedure 5. Advantages 6. Techniques.
Meaning of Work-Study:
Work-study is term for those techniques which evaluate the performance of tasks in an enterprise in context with the level of performance of various factors. It is concerned with efforts, time, materials, equipments and space used by an effective management in obtaining the goal of the enterprise. The main stress of work-study is to examine the human works in all its context and to motivate the human efforts at all levels to make the life productive.
A few definitions of work-study reproduced below will help to understand the meaning of work-study:
(i) “The work-study may be defined as one of the management techniques which can be applied to achieve the optimum use of the resources available to an establishment for the accomplishment of the work.” – Brig. K. Pannathar.
(ii) “The systematic, objective and critical examination of all the factors governing the operational efficiency of any specified activity in order to effective management.” – Russel M. Currie.
Thus work-study is designed to bring out how much better a job could be done rather than show up how much badly it is being done. The task of finding a better method is termed as work-study. It investigates all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situations being reviewed in order to effect improvement.
Thus, work-study immensely affects the productivity of concern, costs, better use of available resources and planning and control devices. It aims at and results in greater productivity through improved methods with less costs and efforts and improved production.
Area of Work-Study:
Work-study techniques can be effectively applied anywhere human work is performed.
The techniques of work-study are necessary in the following circumstances:
(i) Where process is time consuming and there is delay in work performance.
(ii) Rejection of finished goods at high rate.
(iii) If there is low efficiency in production.
(iv) Where incentive wage plans for workers are being introduced.
(v) Work-study techniques are also needed to improve the bad working habits of the untrained workers.
(vi) Problems in layout also demand the application of work-study techniques.
Objective of Work-Study:
Work-study is a short term approach to the problems of productivity.
The principal objective of work-study may be enumerated as:
(i) To ensure the best possible and most effective use of existing or potential resources of the firm.
(ii) To establish the most economical ways of performing the job considering the various limitations.
(iii) To secure proper performance of the plant, methods and materials through standardization process. By standardization process, better quality and higher production can be ensured.
(iv) To determine the time required (standard time! to perform a standard task at a given level of performance by a qualified trained operator. It helps in fixing the wages of different categories of personnel.
(v) To introduce the methods and standards as accepted routine practice.
Procedure of Work-Study:
Work-study is a procedure oriented and systematic study to establish the one best way (standard) method of doing an operation by investigation and analysis of all the details regarding the job or operation carried out as per the established standard method.
In effective work-study following procedure should be adopted:
In this step the work (i.e., job or process), to be studied, is selected.
After selection, all the details concerning job are recorded by using various recording techniques such as graphical representation methods.
All the concerning facts related with purpose, place, person, means along with some questions like who, what when, where are examined.
Development of alternative and economical method.
It relates with the amount of work and standard time for each process.
Select the best possible and economical method and define it.
Installation of new selected method.
Maintain new method as per the standards.
Advantages of Work-Study:
As we know work-study forms the basis for work system design. The purpose of work design is to identify the most effective means of achieving necessary functions.
The main advantages can be summarized as:
(i) It is a means of enhancing the productivity of any industry by reducing wastages and not required processes.
(ii) It eliminates the unvalued operations by examining the factors affecting work.
(iii) For establishing time standards it is very accurate and systematic process.
(iv) It gives contribution in profit by saving expenditures on unnecessary activities.
(v) It assists in achieving the smooth and efficient production flow with minimum problems.
(vi) Developing better employee-employer relationship with harmony.
(vii) Enhancing the delivery commitment.
(viii) Higher utilization of resources leads to minimum rejection and wastages.
(ix) Better working environment and layout.
(x) Helps in standardization and simplification.
(xi) It also helps in planning regarding manpower, scheduling, routing and controlling activities in industry.
Techniques of Work-Study:
Study is encompassed by two techniques i.e. method study and work-measurements (or time-measurement) or (Time-study) as shown in fig. (1.7).
It is concerned with the systematic recording, analysis and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of performing a particular job and find out and develop the best and most effective way or method of doing the job after proper analysis. The modern concept of method study is a development of Gilbenth’s technique of motion-study.
According to different thinkers, the following are the main objectives of method-study:
(a) Improvement of the process of production.
(b) Improvement in the design and layout of a factory, a shop or a work-place.
(c) Economy in human efforts and reduction in unnecessary motions causing fatigue.
(d) Improvement in the use of materials, machines and manpower.
(e) Development of better working conditions.
(II) Time-Study (Work-Measurement):
It is the application of techniques designed to establish the work-content of a specified task to determine the time required for carrying out at a defined standard of performance by a skilled worker.
In other words, the output from a given machine is calculated by measuring the time required to perform a task. Work measurement is also known as time-study. Method or work design is a prerequisite for efficient work-measurement technique.
According to different thinkers, the time-study attempts to measure not only the minimum time required for work-content of the task but also the time added by the following factors and suggest measures to eliminate or minimise this time.
These factors are:
(a) Ineffective methods of production.
(b) Defects in design and specification of the product.
(c) Ineffective time within control of management, and
(d) Ineffective time with the control of workers.