Here is a compilation of term papers on ‘Computer’ for class 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Computer’ especially written for school and college students.
Term Paper on Computers
Term Paper # 1. Introduction to Computer:
Let us analyse the meaning of the key words used in the definition to build up the total concept, which will enable us to answer the vital questions, without frills or fears — what is a computer? How is it related to data and information?
The Output which the computer provides is information and information is the desired piece of knowledge, which are useful to us for various decision making, actions, or reactions. Suppose, you have to travel next week from Calcutta to Delhi for a day to appear in an interview.
You walk into a Computerized Railway Reservation Centre, get into a queue, and then enquire at the counter by presenting a filled up form, where a person is sitting with a Keyboard quite similar to the bottom-half of an ordinary typewriter and a TV like screen next to him; which some knowledgeable person in the queue tells you, is a Monitor — a Video Display Unit [VDU], also called Visual Display Terminal — VDT by some.
Within seconds, the operator is able to tell you everything you wanted to know for your visit to Delhi and return —- in which trains / on which days / in which classes the tickets are available for outward and inward journeys. This is the information you wanted, to decide your next course of action — the knowledge may also please or disappoint you. The computer, however, Outputs the information on the monitor.
Next, you decide to buy a specific ticket and accordingly the operator again presses a few keys, the first time he did it was when you presented the Reservation Slip. Now, another piece of equipment, hurriedly prints out your ticket, which is called a Printer, another piece of information in a Hard Copy — the name given to anything printed on paper by a Printer. The information displayed on the screen is called Soft-copy.
How did you get the output, where was the data ? Well, partly inside the computer already stored and partly in the Reservation Slip you- filled up with dotpen in English, for information to the operator and he perfectly understood your requirement — if he wanted to know any further he would talk to you. But to make the computer understand your requirement, the operator typed in the Input Data using the keyboard, supplying the required data, such as, date of travel, train number, etc., etc. The computer processed the data to produce the information, which resulted you in getting your ticket.
So by now we have another piece of information — the computer also has some storage place where the data can be stored. But what about the instructions, the definition specified? You did not see the operator giving any instruction and it was also not possible to do so in such a short time by pressing such a few keys. Yes, you have guessed it right! The instructions were also stored in the computer; having been entered at one time or other by typing them using the Keyboard — another Input required by the computer.
Incidentally, whether it is data or set of instructions, called program, inside the computer system these are properly segregated into Files and stored in tapes and or in records, called disks. Don’t we have our favourite songs in cassettes and or audio records for some permanency!
We called the computer an Inert Electronic Device and we also said that predetermined-Logical Instructions are to be given. Are these two some way related? Yes, certainly. Let’s pick up a transistor radio to listen to the running commentary of your favourite match being played. First, you looked at your watch to confirm that the commentary was in the air.
Then, what did you do to get the running commentary? The least you did was – turned a switch on to give power supply, adjusted the volume control knob to your desired level, operated another switch to go to proper MW or SW band, and then turned another knob to tune in to the right station — all along you used your ears and also eyes to get feedback to check and ensure that you got what you wanted.
Why did you have to do so many things? It is because the radio is an inert electronic device — incapable of taking such steps by itself being build up with ICs called chips [Integrated Circuits], transistors, diodes, resistors, condensers, wires, switches, etc., which obviously cannot have any intelligence being non-living things.
The computer is also like the radio or TV to a large extent but favoured with a special circuitry. All the above physical components and pieces together, including the special circuits is called Hardware. One computer expert describes a computer hardware as a —lump of plastic, metal and silicon that can’t do anything without you.
The special circuit designed for computers is capable of what is called Logical Processing. What it simply does is compares two items or values, say of variables A and B, and then takes one of the three different courses of actions depending on whether the value of A is greater than that of B, or A is equal to B, or A is less than B. Obviously, we have to specify what is A and B, and what actions are to be taken under what logical conditions.
The computer can also state whether a certain fact is true or false, like, whether it is true or not that A is equal to B, if A = 10 and B = 20; the answer obviously would be No or False. Let us wait for a few more minutes to see a real life problem, where this concept is used, to get the desired information. Incidentally, the set of instructions in general is called Software.
A Computer System has two broad divisions, called Hardware and Software — one is useless without the other.
Term Paper # 2. Features of a Computer:
Following are the main features of Computers:
(i) Mass Storage:
A computer can store voluminous data and reproduce any part of it, as and when required. The storage of data is ordinarily done on magnetic medium like magnetic tape or magnetic disks. The density of recording on this medium is so high that millions of transactions of a commercial organisation can be recorded on one magnetic tape.
(ii) High Speed:
Computers are of value for their incredibly high speed of operations. The speed of processing data on a computer is ordinarily expressed in microseconds (1 micro second = 1/10.00,000 second), although there are computers that can perform an operation in even lesser time. In other words, computers can perform millions of operations in seconds.
(iii) Stored Programme:
A computer is capable of storing a set of instructions, and executing them, as desired. This makes the computers perform various operations automatically. In other words, the facility to store a set of instructions for the computer (also known as computer programme) enables the computer to switch over from one instruction to another without the human intervention.
Computers are extremely accurate in their operations. Error in the operation of the machine is very rare and, thus, the computer is considered to be quite accurate.
One of the major factors responsible for the popularity of computers is their versatility to perform in different work situations. Computers are multi-purpose information machines. The computer can switch over from one programme to another depending upon the instructions given to it.
The computer and its associated devices (collectively called hardware) can be used for a variety of purposes when we have a variety of computer programmes (collectively called software).
Term Paper # 3. Components of a Computer:
An electronic computer is composed of five components which are discussed below:
It is that part of a computer which receives data and information.
Information may be fed into the computer in the following forms:
(i) Punched cards which are passed through a punched card reader.
(ii) Punched paper tape which is passed through a punched card reader.
(iii) Magnetic tape or disc which is passed through a magnetic tape or disc reader. A magnetic tape works like a domestic tape recorder.
(ii) Memory or Storage Unit:
This unit retains the steps for calculations and initial input data, the intermediate and final results. All these values are supplied by the memory unit whenever required during calculation or at the time of printing. Memories are in the form of magnetic core, magnetic drum, magnetic tape and disk, and thin film.
(iii) Arithmetic Unit:
Required calculations are done in this unit by taking the necessary information from the memory unit and instructions from the control unit.
The arithmetic unit has the ability of performing all the ordinary operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division at a very high speed. After performing the necessary operations, the answers are sent back to the memory unit. The arithmetic unit is made up of vacuum tubes.
(iv) Console or Control Unit:
This unit is also known as programme controller. It is the most complex unit. It is the nerve centre because each unit of the computer works under the supervision of this unit. Once the figures are fed into the input unit, the control unit takes complete charge and handles the figures as instructed by the computer programmer. It also coordinates the data.
(v) Output Unit:
This unit turns out the end-product, i.e., result, report or the final information such as control reports, budgets and economic order quantity. It transfers the final information to an outside document like printed paper, punched card or magnetic tape. The final information may also be displayed on the TV screen if there is a provision for that.
The processes carried out in the computer are more or less similar to the processes carried out in the human brain. Like human brain, a computer is composed of five units as described above.
The input to human brain is given through eyes or ears or both. The output is given through tongue or hand. The other three-units, viz., arithmetic unit, memory unit and control unit are packed in the brain. Similarly, these units are packed together in the computer and are collectively called Central Processing Unit.
The computer does everything as per the instructions given by the programmer in his program. It cannot think on its own like human brain. Therefore, it cannot be considered superior to human brain.
It is simply an electronic machine which does the calculations very accurately with tremendous speed. It is superior to human brain in another respect also and that is its memory. Its memory capacity is very large compared with the memory of human mind.
Hardware and Software:
The computer itself as a machine and related equipment used in an electronic data processing system are known as hardware. All other materials utilised in operating the computer or electronic data processing system are called software. Software includes the computer programs and other things necessary for the operation of the computer.
Term Paper # 4. Types of Computers:
On the basis of their speed and storage capacity, computers can be classified into following categories:
i. Super Computers:
Super computers are very big computers with very large storage capacity. They operate at very high speed. Since the cost of such computers is very high, they are used in big organisations like government agencies and large companies.
ii. Mainframe Computers:
Mainframe computers are among the larger computers, more extensively used for business data processing.
iii. Mini Computers:
Mini computers are smaller than mainframe computers. These computers are very popular among medium-sized business enterprises wherein the data processing requirements are moderate.
iv. Micro Computers:
The smallest among computers are called micro computers. The micro computers are used where data processing requirements are limited. Personal computers (popularly known as PCs) fall in this category.
v. Analog Computers:
These computers operate on the principle of analog between numbers and physical quantities. For example, slide rule is an analog device with length representing numbers. Modern analog computers use electronic circuitry to represent processes with changes in electrical current representing the behaviour of the system being studied.
The analog computers are widely used for scientific and research data processing. The operations on these computers require an advanced knowledge of mathematical and operational research techniques.
vi. Digital Computers:
Digital computers deal with actual numbers and answer to the problem is obtained by counting operations. Data is applied to the digital computer in the form of electric pulses of two discrete levels. Hence this type of machine is highly adaptable to numerical calculations.
There must be an intermediate device between the operator and data processing unit of the computer which will translate the information from numerical data to pulse data. This is available in the form of punched cards or tapes.
The computer accepts the information and after performing the arithmetical operations presents the results in the form the programmer requires. Such computers are used in commerce and industry for a large variety of operations.