# Archive | Illumination Engineering

## Street Lighting: Objects, Principles and Lamps | Illumination Engineering

In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Objective of Street Lighting 2. Principles of Street Lighting 3. Types of Lamps. Objective of Street Lighting: The main objective of street lighting are: (i) To make the traffic and obstructions on the road clearly visible in order to promote safety and convenience. (ii) To make the street more attractive. (iii) To [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Street Lighting|Comments Off on Street Lighting: Objects, Principles and Lamps | Illumination Engineering

## Methods Employed for Lighting Calculations | Illumination Engineering

A number of methods have been employed for lighting calculations, among which may be mentioned: 1. Watts per Square Metre Method 2. Lumen or Light Flux Method 3. Point to Point or Inverse-Square Law Method. 1. Watts per Square Metre Method: This is principally a "rule of thumb" method, very handy for rough calculation or checking. It consists in making [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Lighting Calculations|Comments Off on Methods Employed for Lighting Calculations | Illumination Engineering

## Light: Nature and Sources | Illumination Engineering

Light is the prime factor in the human life as all activities of human beings ultimately depend upon the light. Where there is no natural light, use of artificial light is made. Artificial lighting produced electrically, on account of its cleanliness, ease of control, reliability, steady output, as well as its low cost, is playing an increasingly important part in [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Illumination Engineering|Comments Off on Light: Nature and Sources | Illumination Engineering

## Laws of Illumination | Illumination Engineering

There are two laws of illumination: 1. Law of Inverse Squares 2. Lambert's Cosine Law. 1. Law of Inverse Squares: If a source of light which emits light equally in all directions be placed at the centre of a hollow sphere, the light will fall uniformly on the inner surface of the sphere, that is to say, each square mm [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Laws|Comments Off on Laws of Illumination | Illumination Engineering

## Lamp Types: Types of Arc Lamps | Illumination Engineering

In an arc lamp electric current is made to flow through two electrodes in contact with each other which are drawn apart. The result is an arc being struck. The arc maintains the current, and is very efficient source of light. There are various forms of arc lamps such as carbon-arc, flame-arc or magnetic-arc lamps. Type # 1. Carbon-Arc Lamp: [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Lamps|Comments Off on Lamp Types: Types of Arc Lamps | Illumination Engineering

## Incandescent Lamps: Filament Materials and Types | Illumination

In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Filament Materials Used in Incandescent Lamps 2. Filament Dimensions of Incandescent Lamps 3. Types 4. Aging Effects 5. Effects of Voltage Variations. Filament Materials Used in Incandescent Lamps: For sometimes the arc lamps were used for general lighting purpose but as the carbon-arc lamps were complicated so these have been superseded by [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Lamps|Comments Off on Incandescent Lamps: Filament Materials and Types | Illumination

## Fluorescent Lamp: Connections and Performance Curve | Illumination

The fluorescent lamp in common with most electrical devices may cause a certain amount of radio interference. This interference may be caused due to one of the following factors: 1. Direct radiation from the bulb to the antenna. This effect diminishes rapidly as the radio is separated from the lamp. Thus, for example, at a radius of 2.8 metres interference [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Lamps|Comments Off on Fluorescent Lamp: Connections and Performance Curve | Illumination

## Gaseous Discharge Lamps: Principle and Drawbacks | Illumination

In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Principle of a Gaseous Discharge Lamp 2. Types of Gaseous Discharge Lamps 3. Drawbacks. Principle of a Gaseous Discharge Lamp: The basic principle of a gaseous discharge lamp is illustrated in Fig. 7.32. Gases are normally poor conductors, especially at atmospheric and higher pressures, but application of suitable voltage, called the ignition [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Lamps|Comments Off on Gaseous Discharge Lamps: Principle and Drawbacks | Illumination

## Determining the Candle Power of a Lamp? | Illumination Engineering

In this article we will discuss about the determination of candle power of a lamp. Use of Polar Curves to Determine the Candle Power of a Lamp: It is assumed that the luminous intensity or the candle power from a source is uniformly distributed over the surrounding surface. But none of the practical type of lamp provides light uniformly distributed [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Lamps|Comments Off on Determining the Candle Power of a Lamp? | Illumination Engineering

## Design of Lighting Schemes: 8 Factors | Illumination Engineering

The lighting scheme should be such that it may: (i) Provide adequate illumination, (ii) Provide light distribution all over the working plane as uniform as possible, (iii) Provide light of suitable colour, and (iv) Avoid glare and hard shadows as far as possible. The following factors are required to be considered while designing the lighting scheme: Factor # 1. Illumination [...]

By |2018-02-20T16:27:31+05:30February 20, 2018|Lighting Schemes|Comments Off on Design of Lighting Schemes: 8 Factors | Illumination Engineering
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